Waste Management in UAE
In the recent decade, waste volumes in the UAE have increased due to population expansion and economic activities. The vast majority of garbage is disposed of in municipal landfills or dumpsites, where organic waste releases considerable amounts of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Only a small percentage of the waste is now burned, and the municipal waste recycling rate is rapidly increasing.
Local governments are in charge of waste management throughout the country. Recycling and converting trash to energy and resources, new technologies, and enhanced waste separation and collection methods address waste challenges. The UAE is working to reduce cities’ negative environmental impacts per inhabitant, focusing on air quality and municipal and other waste management.
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EPS Waste Management
Expanded polystyrene is a highly visual material because it is both bulky and primarily white. Because of the high visibility aspect, it appears that vast amounts of used EPS are discarded. Actually, this isn’t the case. Only 0.1% of municipal solid waste(MSW) is made up of EPS.
Clean burning used plastics to recover energy and reduce trash flow to landfills is one technique to extract value from them. Waste combustion for power or heat generation is a popular approach to maximize the use and benefit of plastic material resources. The calorific value of EPS is high. Expanded polystyrene has the same amount of energy as 1.3 liters of heating fuel. Over the course of a year, the waste put in one household’s bins contains enough energy to heat water for 500 baths or keep the television on for 5,000 hours.
This method of EPS waste management produces no harmful emissions. It is burned at high temperatures in modern plants. Steam, carbon dioxide, and extremely tiny quantities of non-toxic ash are the by-products. These emissions are less polluting than those produced by a conventional campfire.
Incineration is a waste treatment procedure that involves the combustion of organic compounds found in the waste. The original waste’s solid mass is decreased by roughly 80 to 85%, while the volume is lowered by 95 to 96%. While incineration does not totally eliminate the need for landfilling, it helps minimize the amount of waste that must be disposed of.
Although each incinerator is different, the most typical method is known as “mass burn.” There are five steps in the typical procedure of a mass burn incinerator.
- Waste preparation: Oversized goods are removed, and recyclable materials such as metals are recovered. Before entering the incinerator, the residual garbage is frequently shredded.
- Combustion: The waste is combusted in a single oxygenated combustion chamber. Extremely high temperatures of 1,800-2,200 degrees Fahrenheit are used to burn materials. Waste should totally combust at those temperatures, leaving just fumes and ash.
- Energy Recovery: The gases generated during combustion are cooled with water through heat recovery, resulting in steam generation. Electrical generators are powered by steam.
- Environmental Control: Pollutants are removed from the cooled gas using scrubbers, precipitators, and filters. The residuals or solids that accumulate during treatment are disposed of in a landfill.
- Environmental Release: The gas is discharged into the atmosphere once it has been treated. Because the residual gases should be free of particles, there should be no visible smoke from the smokestack.
In the form of heat from incineration, energy can be recovered from post-consumer EPS. By weight, the caloric value of EPS accessible for heat recovery is slightly higher than coal. In a modern incinerator, EPS converts most of its energy into heat, assisting in the combustion of municipal solid waste while producing only carbon dioxide, water vapor, and a trace of non-toxic ash. Because no dioxins or furans are released, the vapors are non-toxic and non-harmful to the environment. The energy gained can be used for both local heating and electricity generating.